Arquivo do autor:seletynof
Antônio Cândido de Mello e Souza
O pensamento de Nietzsche chegou muito cedo ao Brasil, por vias diretas e tortas. Mas foi em 1946, quando a difamação de Nietzsche estava em seu apogeu, especialmente nos meios de esquerda, que se levantou uma primeira voz em sua defesa (ou melhor, em defesa dos que estavam ameaçados de perder, por preconceito, o "presente feito à humanidade" com sua obra): era um jovem crítico literário de São Paulo, preocupado, já então, com a necessidade de "recuperarmos Nietzsche". Hoje todos sabem quem é Antônio Cândido. Mas poucos da nova geração tiveram oportunidade de conhecer esse ensaio, publicado pela primeira vez no rodapé semanal do Diário de São Paulo ("Notas de Crítica Literária"), e incluído mais tarde no Observador Literário (Comissão Estadual de Cultura, 1959), livro atualmente mais que esgotado. Hoje, que ao menos em parte o preconceito se desfez e o trabalho filológico está trazendo a obra à sua verdadeira luz, nada mais oportuno, depois da aventura através dos textos, do que reter esse estudo e reconhecer a justeza, a coragem da lucidez, sempre possível, mesmo em épocas traumatizadas. Por essa razão, com especial consentimento do autor, esse dito ensaio é reeditado aqui, em apêndice a estas "obras imcompletas" de Nietzsche. (Rubens Rodrigues Torres Filho)
É preciso afastar, em relação a pensadores como Nietzche, o conceito de guerra - propagandístico ou ingênuo -, que o encara como uma espécie de Rosenberg mais fino e procura ver no seu pensamento o precursor do nazismo. Esse antipangermanista convicto deve ser considerado o que realmente é: um dos maiores inspiradores do mundo moderno, cuja lição, longe de exaurida, pode servir de guia a muitos problemas do humanismo contemporâneo.
Mesmo rejeitando o conteúdo das suas idéias, devemos reter e ponderar a sua técnica de pensamento, como propedêutica à superação das condições individuais. “O homem é um ente que deve ser ultrapassado”, disse ele; e o que propõe é ultrapassar incessantemente o ser de conjuntura, que somos num dado momento, a fim de buscar estados mais completos de humanização. Talvez pudêssemos indicar os rumos da sua propedêutica, dizendo que visa a uma expansão mais completa das energias de que somos portadores, e nesse sentido é elucidativa a preocupação de ascese, de exercício preparatório, que atravessa toda a sua obra. Por isso invoca ou sugere uma certa dureza e a abolição da autocomplacência: ver duro e cru, em si e nos outros, para ser capaz de ver justo e bom, posto que justiça e bondade repousam sobre a energia com que superamos as injunções, as normas cristalizadas, tudo enfim que tende a imobilizar o ser em posições já atingidas e esvaziadas de conteúdo vivo. O que é tacitamente aceito por nós; o que recebemos e praticamos sem atritos internos e externos, sem ter sido por nós conquistado, mas recebido de fora para dentro, é como algo que nos foi dado; são dados que incorporamos à rotina, reverenciamos passivamente e se tornam peias ao desenvolvimento pessoal e coletivo. Ora, para que certos princípios, como a justiça e a bondade, possam atuar e enriquecer, é preciso que surjam como algo que obtivemos ativamente a partir da superação dos dados. "Obtém a ti mesmo" – é o conselho nietzschiano que o velho Egeu dá ao filho, no Teseu, de Gide. Para essa conquista das mais lídimas virtualidades do ser é que Nietzsche ensina a combater a complacência, a morbidão das posições adquiridas, que o comodismo intitula moral, ou outra coisa bem soante. Na sua concepção há uma luta permanente entre a vida que se afirma e a que vegeta; parecia-lhe que esta era acoroçoada pelos valores rotinizados da civilização cristã e burguesa.
Realmente, se submetermos a análise rigorosa a maneira por que damos abrigo aos valores espirituais, veremos que em nossa atitude há mais de comodismo e flacidez moral do que propriamente crença ativa e fecundante. Aceitamos por via de integração, participação submissa no grupo, tendendo a transformar os gestos em simples repetição automática. Fazemo-lo para evitar as aventuras da personalidade, as grandes cartadas da vida, julgando pôr em prática valores conquistados por nós mesmos. Ora, a obra de Nietzsche nos pretende sacudir, arrancar deste torpor, mostrando as maneiras pelas quais negamos cada vez mais a nossa humanidade, submetendo-nos em vez de nos afirmarmos. Encarada assim, a exaltação do homem vital e sem preconceitos vale, de um lado, como retificação do humanitarismo freqüentemente ingênuo do século XIX: de outro, como reivindicação da complexidade do homem, contra certas versões racionalistas e simplificadoras.
Com efeito, ele afirma longamente em sua obra (de modo quase sistemático na primeira parte de Além de Bem e de Mal, por exemplo) que o homem é mais complexo do que supõem as normas e convenções. Bem antes das modernas correntes da psicologia, analisou a força e importância dos impulsos de domínio e submissão, concluindo que há em nós um animal solto que também compõe a personalidade e influi na conduta. Naquela obra, insiste sobre a presença no tecido da vida humana, dessas componentes, que a moral e a convenção procuram eliminar, depois de as haverem condenado.
A sua teoria da consciência como superfície, afloramento de obscuridades que não se pressentem, anuncia a psicanálise, como podemos ver nas longas exposições da Vontade de Potência. Sob este ângulo, e apesar do desvirtuamento da expressão, o super-homem aparece como tipo superiormente humano – um ente que consegue manifestar certas forças de vida, mutiladas em outros por causa da noção parcial que a psicologia e a moral convencionais oferecem de nós. Em meio à hipocrisia, à debilidade da consciência na burgueia européia do fim do século XIX; ao humanitarismo manhoso com que procurava adormecer o sentimento de culpa, Nietzsche assume por vezes uma estatura de justiceiro. E um exemplo da ironia que espreita na posteridade as idéias dos filósofos é o fato de muitas dessas virtudes de dureza propedêutica terem sido encarnadas, no século XX, por uma raça de homens que ele sempre considerou progênie de escravos. Na elite revolucionária que implantou o socialismo na Rússia, encontravam-se, como a realização impressionante duma profecia, as qualidades de implacável retidão que atribui, em Vontade de Potência, ao "Legislador do Futuro" – que poda sem dó a fim de favorecer a expansão plena, e cuja dureza aparente é, no fundo, amor construtivo pelos homens.
Nele, porém, esta atitude só adquire significado reposta no conjunto da obra – naquela mistura, tão sua, de fervor e irreverência, destruição raivosa e júbilo construtivo, que é a única possibilidade do nosso tempo e ele anteviu como profeta. Para a opinião dominante, a sua crítica violenta fez dele um personagem incômodo, ante o qual se fecham as portas da cidade, como as que, na parábola final de Humano, Demasiado Humano, rejeitam o peregrino para a noite do deserto. Ele vinha romper uma série de hábitos tacitamente aceitos, e mostrar que a própria filosofia não dava mais conta das obrigações para com a vida.
Talvez se possa dizer, com efeito, que, a partir do século XVII e até o nosso, ela cuidou mais da natureza do espírito e das condições do seu funcionamento, que do seu caráter de aspecto da atividade humana total. Doutro lado, analisou de preferência tudo que condiciona o comportamento e dele resulta; raras vezes desceu às suas raízes vivas. Semelhante tarefa coube não raro à arte, cuja importância como forma de conhecimento não decresceu no mundo moderno, como se poderia pensar à primeira vista. A acuidade psicológica, por exemplo, não se confunde com a competência dos especialistas, e deve ser buscada menos neles do que em obras como as de Dostoiévski, Proust, Pirandello ou Kafka; e não é de estranhar que o maior psicólogo do nosso tempo, Freud, seja uma espécie de ponte entre o mundo da arte e o da ciência; entre os processos positivos de análise e a intuição estética.
Nietzsche se situa no universo dos psicólogos artistas, e daí decorre o significado central da sua obra. Enquanto algumas e por muitos lados melhores tendências do pensamento oitocentista procuravam resolver o problema da vida em sociedade criticando as condições de existência, ele tentou atingir diretamente o núcleo da personalidade. Se Marx ensaiava transmudar os valores sociais no que têm de coletivo, ele ensaiou uma transmutação do ângulo psicológico – do homem tomado como unidade duma espécie, pela qual é decisivamente marcado, sem desconhecer, é claro, todo o equipamento de civilização que intervém no processo. São atitudes que se completam, pois não basta rejeitar a herança burguesa no nível da produção e das ideologias; é preciso pesquisar o subsolo pessoal do homem moderno tomado como indivíduo, revolvendo as convenções que a ele se incorporam, e sobre as quais assenta a sua mentalidade.
Daí a conseqüente transmutação dos valoes morais. Discípulo dos grandes analistas franceses, apaixanado de Stendhal e Dostoiévsk, dando uma sentença de Pascal por toda a metafísica alemã, continua os grandes investigadores da conduta, concebida como arte. O seu objetivo é lançar as bases de uma nova ética, acessível aos homens "que se obtém" – homens superiores que alargarão até os outros aquilo que conquistaram penosamente, cauterizando em si a herança de uma civilização desvirtuada. "É certo que todos nós temos laços e afinidades que nos ligam ao santo, assim como um parentesco espiritual nos vincula ao filósofo e ao artista" – diz numa das Considerações Extemporânes. Em conseqüência, todo progresso no sentido da realização do super-homem significa riqueza coletiva, na medida em que atuam essas afinidades secretas que, ligando-o a todos, a todos enriquecem pela comunicação da seiva.
Para favorecer o aparecimento dos homens superiores, é preciso alterar o modo de encarar a vida e o conhecimento. O ideal nietzschiano seria o pensador que passeia livremente pela vida e recusa considerar a atividade criadora uma obrigação intelectual; o homem que, para fecundar a si e aos outros, suprime o hiato existente as mais das vezes entre conhecer e viver.
No belo trecho final de Irreligião do Futuro, Guyau chama ao filósofo – amigo do descohecimento: cet ami de l’inconnu. Ele é, com efeito, irmão do aventureiro, e não deve renegar o parentesco vivificante. Enquanto um se desapega da estabilidade e da rotina para obter em torno de si a mudança permanente das pessoas, lugares ou situações – outro opera de maneira semelhante no terreno do espírito, jogando fora convicções, crenças, noções, para obter alguma coisa nova ao cabo dessas rejeições múltiplas e por vezes fatais. Ambos atiram lenha à fogueira, aquecendo-se ao calor de coisas arrancadas à sua norma de vida: fogueira da existência ou fogueira do pensamento. Em muitos casos, ambas.
Vindo após séculos de filosofia catedrática, Nietzsche se revoltou violentamente contra a mutilação do espírito de aventura pela oficialização das doutrinas. E a seu modo foi um aventureiro, não só na existência agitada e ambulante, à busca de lugares novos, emoções renovadas (como alguém que necessita atritar-se com o mundo para despedir faíscas de vida), mas também no pensamento, à busca de ângulos novos, posições inexploradas, renovando sem parar as técnicas do conhecimento. A intervenção feliz de um gênio familiar impediu sempre as suas tentativas de amarrar as idéias em sitemas amplos e fechados.¹ Exprimiu-se de preferência em trechos breves, aforismos e cânticos, a fim de que tudo o que borbulha não fosse canalizado pelo desenho geométrico dos tratados; e para que a filosofia não renunciasse ao privilégio da permanente aventura, a troco da estabilidade que se obtém fechando os olhos ante a fuga vertiginosa das coisas. O tipo de pensador nietzschiano é o Peregrino, o Wanderer, cuja sombra se projeta pelos quatro cantos e nunca vende a alma ao estável, ao tranqüilo, porque deseja manter-se fiel ao desconhecido, enfrentando-o com a coragem da aventura. A mencionada página final de Humano, Demasiado Humano (1ª Parte) define este repto permanente da filosofia, e é das mais belas que se escreveram sobre o destino do pensador, rejeitando a segurança ilusória de que se nutrem os homens médios, para não permanecer de olhos baixos, cego em meio à vida que estua no desconhecido, oferencendo aventuras que glorificam e consomem:
"Quem atingiu dalgum modo a liberdade da razão não se pode considerar na terra outra coisa que um Peregrino, embora não um viajante rumando para uma meta final – pois esta não existe. Contemplará e terá os olhos abertos para tudo que acontece no mundo; não ligará o coração em definitivo a nada de único; deve haver nele algo erradio, pois a sua alegria está no mutável e no inconstante. Por certo cairão noites penosas sobre um homem desse - quando estiver cansado e encontrar fechadas as portas da cidade, que lhe deveria dar repouso. Pode ser, ainda mais, que o deserto chegue até a elas, como no Oriente, e as feras ululem, ora perto, ora longe, e um vento forte se eleve, e os salteadores lhe roubem os animais de carga. Desce então uma noite terrível, como um segundo deserto no deserto, e o Peregrino se sentirá exausto no coração. Quando o sol levantar, abrasando como a divindade da ira, abre-se a cidade, e nas faces dos habitantes ele verá talvez mais deserto, mais sujeira, mais embuste e mais insegurança do que fora de portas – e o dia será quase pior que a noite. Isto pode, na verdade, ocorrer a um Peregrino; mas depois virão, como recompensa, manhãs deleitosas, noutra paragem e noutro dia, onde, através do dilúculo, verá bandos de musas bailarem perto, na névoa das montanhas; onde, em seguida, quando passear à sombra das árvores, na serenidade da manhã, cair-lhe-ão, dentre os ramos e a folhagem, coisas boas e claras, dádivas dos espíritos livres, que se acomodam bem, como ele, nos montes, florestas e solidões, e são, como ele, de maneira ora alegre, ora pensativa, peregrinos e filósofos. Oriundos do mistério da madrugada, pensam no que pode fazer tão pura, luminosa, jovialmente transfigurada a fisionomia do dia entre a décima e a décima segunda pancada do sino: andam a buscar a Filosofia da Manhã".
¹ Hoje, após os trabalhos e a edição de Karl Schlechta, sabemos com certeza que a Vontade de Potência, como foi publicada, sobretudo nas últimas edições, chmadas completas, não passa duma ordenação arbritária de fragmentos que não haviam sido destinadas a qualquer obra sistemática. O "sistema" e suas implicações capiciosas nasceu do interesse fraudulento de sua irmã e respectivos colaboradores, ingênuos ou cúmplices conscientes. (Nota de 1959.)
Sob esta roupagem alegórica, sob a graça deste estilo a que a tradução retira o aspecto por assim dizer miraculoso, Nietzsche é eminentemente um educador. Propõe sem cessar, como aqui, uma série de técnicas libertadoras, levando-nos ao paradoxo de pensar, como Gide, nos Pretextos, que a sua "influência (…) importa mais que a sua obra". Talvez seja verdade, grata a quem exclamou na Gaia Ciência: "Para que serve um livro que não for capaz de nos transportar além dos livros?". Os seus conduzem para o terreno da aventura espiritual; livros de movimento, que têm um pacto misterioso com a dança, elemento chave do seu pensamento: "Há escritores que, pelo fato de representarem o impossível como possível, e falarem do que é moral e genial como se ambos não passassem de fantasia, capricho, provocam um sentimento de alegre liberdade, como se o homem se pusesse sobre a ponta dos pés e, graças a um júbilo interior, fosse obrigado literalmente a dançar" (Humano, Demasiadamente Humano).
É claro que os seus livros, que ensinam a dançar, não emanam de um filósofo profissional, mas de alguém bastante acima do que nos habituamos a conceber dste modo. Como poucos, em nosso tempo, é um portador de valores, graças ao qual o conhecimento se encarna e flui no gesto de vida. "Aqui, a certeza é um jogo; dir-se-ia que o conhecimento encontrou o seu ato, e que de repente a inteligência aceita as graças espontâneas" (Valéry).
Há, com efeito, seres portadores, que podemos ou não encontrar, na existência cotidiana e nas leituras que subjugam o espírito. Quando isto se dá, sentimos que eles iluminam bruscamente os cantos escuros do entendimento e, unificando os sentimentos desparelhados, revelam possibilidades de uma existência mais real. Os valores que trazem, eminentemente radioativos, nos trespassam, deixam translúcidos e não raro prontos para os raros heroísmos do ato e do pensamento. Geralmente, ficamos ofuscados um instante quando os vemos e, sem força para os receber, tergiversamos e nos deviamos deles. A opacidade se refaz, então, a mediania recobra o domínio e só resta a lembrança, de efeitos variáveis. Os coevos lobrigavam chamas do inferno na barra da túnica de Dante; nos nossos olhos resta igualmente a nostalgia do reino perdido, como no soneto admirável de Antero de Quental:
E assentado entre as formas imperfeitas,
Para sempre fiquei pálido e triste.
Os portadores, que eletrizaram um instante, por via da participação misteriosa de que fala Nietzsche, esses, continuam, como ele próprio continuava, irrequietos e irremediáveis.
Entretanto, embora nos iluminemos apenas um instante e os portadores sigam, o que seria da vida e do pensamento se não houvesse oportunidades semelhantes? As idéias e valores existem ante nós como alvos inatingíveis, e o nosso destino é tender a eles. Por isso a vida é uma tendência sem fim, excetuados os momentos de plenitude que suspendem a corrente do tempo. Não obstante, enquanto permanecermos de um lado, e os valores de outro, o esforço e a lucidez da nossa visão serão mais ou menos frouxos. Na vida, só sentimos a realidade dos valores a que tendemos, ou que pressentimos, quando nos pomos em contato com certos intermediários, cuja função é encarná-los, como portadores que são. A abstração e o sentimento adquirem vida (la connaissance a trouvé son acte, diria Valéry) e somos capazes de sentir plenamente, viver os valores. Ao contrário da vida, que dispersa, os portadores condensam e unificam extraordinariamente; daí se imporem como um bloco e fazerem ver a vida como um bloco, que nos afasta por um momento da mediania e impõe uma necessidade quase desesperada de vida autêntica.
"Os homens necessitam constantemente de parteiras." A teoria do super-homem é o conjunto de técnicas necessárias, segundo Nietzsche, para formar estas parteiras de que fala. A profundidade do seu desconhecido humanismo provém da decisão fundamental de nada conceber na vida se não for como encarnação de valor, corporizado na presença humana. E para encerrar estas notas sobre um dos maiores portadores do nosso tempo, nada mais oportuno que a citação de um de seus escritos de mocidade: "Os gregos eram o oposto de todos os realistas, porque, a falar a verdade, só acreditavam na realidade dos homens e dos deuses, e consideravam a natureza inteira como uma espécie de disfarce, de mascarada e metamorfose desses homens-deuses. Para eles, o homem era a verdade e essência das coisas; o resto não passava de fenômeno e miragem". Na nossa época, ao se abrir a primeira fase da história em que será preciso reorganizar o mundo sem apelo ao divino, o que se poderia dizer de melhor para instalar o homem na sua humanidade?… Recuperemos Nietzsch.
Fontepesquisada: NIETZSCHE VOL.II – OS PENSADORES.
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 5:44 PM
En nuestra discusión del vacio físico, mencionamos los conceptos de materia y antimateria. Conviene hacer una pausa e investigar un poco más este fenómeno. Hemos dicho que una partícula es justamente lo opuesto de su antipartícula, pero que las dos son muy parecidas. Consideremos un objeto situado frente a un espejo plano y supongamos que podemos ver el objeto así como su imagen. En apariencia el objeto y su imagen son muy parecidos, pero son inversos el uno de la outra como la mano izquierda lo es de la derecha. La imagen contiene la misma distribuición de luz y color que el objeto, pero en sentido inverso.
Ahora supongamos que hay un objeto con una distribuición de cargas elétricas sobre él, y supongamos que el espejo es de cobre pulido y está conectado a tierra. De nuevo hay imagen ópitca invertida del objeto, pero ahora la imagen tiene una distribuición de carga semejante a la del objeto, sólo que la distribuición está invertida en sígno elétrico. Si hay una concentración de cargas positivas en la parte superior del objeto, habrá una concentración similar de cargas negativas sobre la parte superior de la imagen. En este experimento, el objeto está un poco más cerca de ser igual a su imagen, excepto por la inversión (figura abajo).
Un objeto y su imagen óptica son inversos entre sí en la misma forma en que la mano izquierda lo es de la derecha, y por la inducción elétrica la distribución de carga sobre la imagen tiene los ignos cambiados.
En último caso, el espacio-tiempo constituye una especie de espejo perfecto – uno que refleja todos los aspectos de cada partícula fundamental y al hacerlo así también invierte a cada una. Cada partícula tiene una “reflexión” en este espejo perfecto del espacio-tiempo, y cada propiedad de la partícula está fielmente contenida en su imagen, en un sentido inverso. En este caso, importa poco cuál sea llamado el objeto y cuál la imagen. Son exactamente “semejantes” pero están invertidos en todos los sentidos el uno con respecto a la otra.
Se puede entonces pensar que la naturaleza está compuesta de un vasto número de partículas y de sus correspondientes antipartículas.Estando contenida así, cada una, en el espejo perfecto del espacio-tiempo, pueden hallarse muy distantes entre sí, pero ambas están “en” el espejo.
¿Qué pasa cuando un objeto se acerca a su imagen y “choca” con lla? Podemos retornar al caso de las imágenes ópticas para trazar una analogía. Si observamos una hoja colgante de la rama de un árbol sobre la superficie de una piscina en calma, vemos la hoja y su imagen. Ahora dejemos que la hoja caiga hacia el agua. La imagen y la hoja “chocan” cuando la hoja llega a la superficie del agua. Ambas se desvanecen a medida que la hoja se hunde. En su lugar, una serie de ondas concéntricas se expanden hacia afuera del punto de la colisión.
Esta es una analogía pero muy inadecuada. Cuando una partícula y su antipartícula se combinan en una colisión, ambas se desvanecen completamente, y se producen algunos fotones de radiación eletromagnética o, en algunos casos, se forman piones, que se alejan rápidamente del sitio de la colisión.
Podemos preguntar: ¿Dónde está la imagen particular de este elctrón particular que hay en la punta de mi pluma? ¿Tiene una imagen particular correspondiente y única? Un pensamiento adicional nos recuerda que todos los electrones negativos son idénticos entre sí. Cualquier electrón positivo puede servir como imagen para un electrón negativo y viceversa.
Por consiguiente, todas las propiedades físicas de la materia son en algún sentido reflejadas en el espacio-tiempo, y estas reflexiones constituyen la antimateria. Sin embargo, debemos hacer a un lado una propiedad en la cual lo dicho puede que no se mantenga: la propiedad de estar vivos. La propiedad de la vida aparentemente no es reflejada en el espacio-tiempo, y aunque sea una propiedad perfectamente evidente de muchos objetos, no se puede considerar que la vida esté “en” el espacio-tiempo en el mismo sentido en que las propiedades físicas lo están. No existe evidencia de una “antivida” sino únicamente de la ausencia de vida en casos particulares.
Fontepesquisada: CURSO DE FÍSICA MODERNA. Autores: Virgilio Acosta, Clyde L. Cowan e B. J. Graham. Editora HARLA.
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 9:10 AM
Thomas J. McFarlane
Ver nossa tradução (primeira parte):
ABSTRACT: This paper begins with a review of developments in the modern Western worldview, especially as they relate to the relationships between psyche and matter, with particular emphasis on certain trends in psychology and physics in the early 20th century. Next the paper discusses several ideas relating to the connection between psyche and matter, especially those related to Jungian depth psychology and quantum physics. The paper concludes with some thoughts on how the unity of psyche and matter suggested by these ideas might provide a framework for an integrated understanding of both the inner and outer realms of experience.
If a union is to take place between opposites like spirit and matter, conscious and unconscious, bright and dark, and so on, it will happen in a third thing, which represents not a compromise but something new.  – C. G. Jung
The modern worldview of Western culture is characterized by an implicit division between the objective or physical realm of existence and the subjective or psychic realm of existence, with the objective or physical realm generally dominating the subjective or psychic realms to the point of virtual exclusion, as in the materialistic worldview which considers mind to be a mere epiphenomenon of matter. The dominance of modern materialism is due in large part to its association with the remarkable theoretical and practical power of classical physics as developed by Newton and his successors. According to this model, reality consists of a fixed and passive space containing localized material particles whose movement in time is deterministically governed by mathematical laws. Consequently, mental phenomena, in this picture, are nothing more than the complex functions of the material brain governed by physical laws.
Although scientific materialism provided the dominant worldview of modern Western culture, it did not exist to the total exclusion of other alternatives. Nevertheless, these alternatives did not succeed in fundamentally challenging the dominance of materialism. Instead, this challenge largely came from within empirical science itself. In the 20th century the modern materialistic worldview began to unravel in the face of scientific developments, particularly in physics. In physics, the development of relativity and quantum theory served to radically undermine various fundamental assumptions at the base of the materialistic model. For example, the special and general theories of relativity forced physicists to revise their basic conceptions of space, time, movement, gravitation, matter, energy, and the nature of the cosmos as a whole. Quantum theory, on the other hand, forced a revision of the concepts of causality, determinism, and locality. Perhaps most importantly, it even challenged the idea that properties of matter have an objective existence independent of observation. As a result, 20th century physics undermined the very basis for materialism, and suggested to some thinkers that the psyche may be involved, in some mysterious way, with the determination of the observed properties of matter.
Meanwhile, developments in psychology during the 20th century explicitly introduced the psyche into the domain of scientific inquiry. In particular, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory demonstrated the reality of a psychological unconscious, an unobservable psychic reality which contains repressed personal impulses and desires. These hidden psychic contents exert their influence upon consciousness and thus can be indirectly known by us through a study of various conscious contents, such as our dreams. Although the concept of the psychological unconscious did not initially challenge materialism, the discovery of the transpersonal depths of the unconscious by Jung (i.e., the collective unconscious and psychological archetypes) presupposed a psychic reality that was difficult to reconcile with any strictly materialistic understanding of human nature. Moreover, Jung’s later work with the phenomenon of synchronicity provided evidence that the deepest regions of the unconscious (i.e., the unus mundus) consists of "psychoid" structures that transcend the distinction between psyche and matter altogether.
The above developments in 20th century physics and psychology have analogous implications: just as psychology revealed in the deepest regions of psyche a profound connection with matter, physics revealed in the depths of matter a profound connection with the psyche. Although the precise nature of these connections remains elusive and controversial, the provocative possibility of transcending the dualism of mind and matter has provided motivation for the development of a more comprehensive and unified worldview. As Jungian psychologist Marie-Louise von Franz says,
The unexpected parallelisms of ideas in psychology and physics suggest, as Jung pointed out, a possible ultimate oneness of both fields of reality that physics and psychology study. . . . The concept of a unitarian idea of reality (which has been followed up by Pauli and Erich Neumann) was called by Jung the unus mundus (the one world, within which matter and psyche and are not yet discriminated or separately actualized). 
The remainder of this paper will explore in more detail some of these developments during the 20th century, with a particular emphasis on depth psychology and quantum physics. Because this paper does not presuppose familiarity with quantum physics or depth psychology, a brief exposition of some basic concepts in these two areas of research will precede the discussion of their connections.
The existing scientific concepts cover always only a very limited part of reality, and the other part that has not yet been understood is infinite. Whenever we proceed from the known into the unknown we may hope to understand, but we may have to learn at the same time a new meaning of the word `understanding’.  – Werner Heisenberg
The fundamental laws of quantum physics were discovered independently in 1925 by Werner Heisenberg and in 1926 by Erwin Schrödinger in response to puzzling experimental evidence that contradicted the fundamental concepts of classical physics. For example, electrons (which were previously thought to be particles) were found to exhibit properties of waves. Conversely, light (which was previously thought to be waves) was found to exhibit properties of particles. This confusion of classical distinctions between particles and waves was resolved by Niels Bohr’s principle of complementarity, according to which the wave and particle concepts are understood to be mutually exclusive but both necessary for a complete description of quantum phenomena.
A consequence of this wave-particle duality is that all matter has a wave aspect, and cannot be said to have a definite localized position at all times. Moreover, by virtue of their nonlocal wave properties, pairs of spatially separated particles sometimes exhibit nonlocal correlations in their attributes. Another consequence of the wave-particle duality is a corresponding duality between the unobserved and the observed. This duality raises puzzling questions regarding the nature of measurement in quantum mechanics: how is it that the wave suddenly changes into a particle, and how is this sudden transformation related to observation?
A deeper understanding of these subtle issues requires some basic understanding of the way quantum physics describes phenomena. According to quantum physics, the state of an unobserved quantum of matter or light (such as an electron or photon) is represented by a solution to Schrödinger’s wave equation. This solution is a quantum wave function y(x) whose intensity |y(x)|2 at any particular position x represents the probability of observing the quantum at that position. When the quantum is observed, however, it is seen to have a definite actual position, and the wave function no longer properly describes the quantum. Thus, when the quantum is unobserved, it is a nonlocal wave of probable positions; and when the quantum is observed, it is a particle having a definite localized position. As a result, both the particle and wave concepts are required to completely characterize a quantum: the particle concept is required to describe its particle-like behavior when observed, while the wave concept is require to describe its wave-like behavior when unobserved. The particle and wave concepts are called "complementary" descriptions because they are both needed to characterize the observed and unobserved aspects of any quantum, as illustrated in the following table.
Although observation is evidently necessary to bring about the transition from possible to actual, the fundamental nature of observation in quantum theory remains somewhat mysterious. This problem of measurement derives from the fact that, prior to observation the quantum is described as being a nonlocal wave of probability spread throughout space, while after observation only one of the possible values is actualized. Thus, observation involves a discontinuous "collapse" (also called a "projection") of the quantum wave function from a continuum of possibilities to a single actualized value. This projection, however, is an ad hoc element of the formalism, and is not a lawful transformation that is governed by Schrödinger’s wave equation. There is no explanation for how, when, or where this mysterious projection happens. Moreover, when the projection takes place, the laws of quantum physics do not predict which of the possible values will be actualized in any given observation, thus violating classical determinism and introducing an element of acausality and spontaneity into the theory at a fundamental
In a fundamental analysis of the quantum measurement process, John von Neumann argued that consciousness is required to explain the projection of the wave function from possibility to actuality. In particular, he reasoned that because all physical interactions are governed by Schrödinger’s wave equation, the projection that is associated with observation must be attributed to a non-physical consciousness that is not governed by physical law. According to von Neumann, this activity of consciousness only serves to cause the projection, and does not select or influence the particular value actualized. There is thus a spontaneity inherent in the projection that takes place in the transition from the unobserved to the observed.
Since the stars have fallen from heaven and our highest symbols have paled, a secret life holds sway in the unconscious. …Our unconscious…hides living water, spirit that has become nature, and that is why it is disturbed. Heaven has become for us the cosmic space of the physicists, and the divine empyrean a fair memory of things that once were. But "the heart glows," and a secret unrest gnaws at the roots of our being.  – C. G. Jung
The notion of the psychological unconscious was first extensively developed in Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams, published in 1900, and further developed in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, published in 1905. In addition to the contents of our conscious awareness, Freud considered the psyche to also contain an unconscious region whose contents are hidden and cannot be directly observed. These unconscious contents, according to Freud, consist of previously conscious contents that have been repressed and forgotten. The unconscious is thus a kind of `skeleton closet’ containing personal psychological contents that were conscious in the past but then hidden away. Although they are no longer directly observable, these unconscious contents can be indirectly known through their effects on consciousness, such as their influence on our dreams. In Freud’s conception, the unconscious contains only personal psychic contents that were previously conscious, but then repressed, typically during childhood.
After studying with Freud, Carl Jung deepened and expanded Freud’s notion of the unconscious, most notably in his Psychology of the Unconscious, published in 1912, and his Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, published in 1934. According to Jung, the unconscious contains, in addition to repressed personal contents, a deep and vast region of collective psychic contents, called the collective unconscious. In contrast to the personal unconscious contents that were previously conscious, the collective unconscious contents do not derive from previously conscious personal contents. Instead, the collective contents are innate and universal. In Jung’s words,
We have to distinguish between a personal unconscious and an impersonal or transpersonal unconscious. We speak of the latter also as the collective unconscious, because it is detached from anything personal and is common to all men, since its contents can be found everywhere, which is naturally not the case with the personal contents.
Although the collective unconscious is present in the depths of each individual psyche, it is not subjective in the sense of being different from person to person. Because the collective unconscious is common to all individuals, it is objective in the sense that all individuals share these same deep psychic structures. As Jung writes,
The collective unconscious stands for the objective psyche, the personal unconscious for the subjective psyche.
In short, the door to the unconscious does not open up to a skeleton closet, as Freud proposed, but opens up to a larger world beyond the walls of the conscious psyche.
It is important to note that between the personal and collective regions of the psyche there are various intermediate levels of depth, each having its share of universality and particularity. Jung explains:
In as much as there are differentiations as corresponding to race, tribe, and even family, there is also a collective psyche limited to race, tribe, and family over and above the "universal" collective psyche.
The unconscious, in other words, is not divided into distinct personal and collective regions, but rather is a continuum with the personal and universal contents at each extreme. Jung’s most important contribution and his primary interest, however, is in the deeper regions of the collective unconscious, whose structures Jung calls archetypes. Like Plato’s Ideas, the archetypes of the collective unconscious are universal patterns that shape our experience of the world and provide it with common elements. Following Kant, however, Jung considers the archetypes as epistemological structures rather than independent ontological entities:
The collective unconscious, being the repository of man’s experience and at the same time the prior condition of this experience, is an image of the world which has taken eons to form. In this image certain features, the archetypes or dominants, have crystallized out in the course of time.
According to Jung’s conception of the collective unconscious, the archetypal structures are not fixed, but dynamic. Not only do the archetypes evolve over time, but they also have dynamic and creative activity in the present. Moreover, this activity is not merely a reaction to the activities of consciousness, but is inherent in the unconscious itself. As Jung explains,
If [the unconscious] were merely reactive to the conscious mind, we might aptly call it a psychic mirror world. In that case, the real source of all contents and activities would lie in the conscious mind, and there would be absolutely nothing in the unconscious except the distorted reflections of conscious contents. The creative process would be shut up in the conscious mind, and anything new would be nothing but conscious invention or cleverness. The empirical facts give the lie to this. Every creative man knows that spontaneity is the very essence of creative thought. Because the unconscious is not just a reactive mirror reflection, but an independent, productive activity, its realm of experience is a self-contained world, having its own reality, of which we can only say that it affects us as we affect it–precisely what we say about our experience of the outer world. And just as material objects are the constituent elements of this world, so psychic factors constitute the objects of that other world.
The objective psychic world, or collective unconscious, is thus similar to the objective physical world in that both worlds have objective structures and both worlds have autonomous activity independent of our personal will. For example, just as the objective physical world serves as a creative impetus for the development of our scientific worldviews, the psyche develops and evolves because the objective psyche is not merely repressed conscious contents, but has an autonomous activity that is relatively independent of our personal consciousness. Because this activity of the unconscious is relatively autonomous, it often manifests as a compensation or correction to our conscious views or beliefs. The result is an evolution of the psyche toward wholeness and integration, a process Jung called `individuation’.
In an unconscious compensation, some unconscious content is spontaneously expressed or manifested in consciousness, such as in a dream, and provides the psyche with an opportunity to integrate the unconscious content into consciousness. One of the most interesting and dramatic types of unconscious compensation is the phenomenon Jung calls synchronicity. Synchronicity is necessarily meaningful in the sense that it is a form of unconscious compensation that serves to advance the process of individuation. It is distinguished from other forms of unconscious compensation by the fact that synchronicity involves a connection between inner psychological experience and outer experiences in the world, where the connection is acausal in the sense that the inner experience cannot have been an efficient cause of the outer experience, or vice versa. In short, synchronicity is a meaningful, acausal connection between inner and outer events. Because the phenomenon of synchronicity involves an acausal coordination of the inner and outer worlds in a meaningful way, it is not exclusively a psychological or physical phenomenon, but is "psychoid" meaning that it somehow essentially involves both psyche and matter. Thus, Jung interpreted synchronicity to imply the existence of an extremely profound level of reality prior to any distinction between psyche and matter. In other words, synchronicity phenomena represent a manifestation in consciousness of psychoid structures present in the depths of a transcendental unitary reality Jung called the unus mundus:
Since psyche and matter are contained in one and the same world, and moreover are in continuous contact with one another and ultimately rest on irrepresentable, transcendental factors, it is not only possible but fairly probable, even, that psyche and matter are two different aspects of one and the same thing.
The unus mundus is also implied by the fact that we evidently occupy one reality that contains both psyche and matter, and that these two domains of reality are not absolutely independent and isolated, but interact with each other. As Jung says,
Psyche and matter exist in one and the same world, and each partakes of the other, otherwise any reciprocal action would be impossible. If research could only advance far enough, therefore, we would arrive at an ultimate agreement between physical and psychological concepts.
Jung’s concept of the unus mundus, therefore, not only shows how matter is implicated in the depths of the psyche, but also provides a framework for integrating our understanding of psyche and matter. In this framework, both the objective psychic and objective physical worlds are rooted in a common unity at the depths of reality. Because the unus mundus is normally unconscious, it is experienced as the mysterious Other that is the infinite unseen context of our finite conscious experience. Viewed in its subjective aspect, this unified reality takes the form of a psychic domain containing psychological archetypes that manifest in our inner experience. Viewed in its objective aspect, the unus mundus takes the form of a physical domain containing the archetypal laws of nature that govern manifestations in our outer experience. If psyche and matter are, as this suggests, a single reality viewed from different perspectives, then a comparison of their common elements as revealed in physics and psychology may provide insight into the nature of reality at its deepest and most universal level.
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 10:21 PM
Modern science may have brought us closer to a more satisfying conception of this relationship [between psyche and physis] by setting up, within the field of physics, the concept of complementarity. It would be most satisfactory of all if physis and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality. – Wolfgang Pauli
Microphysics is feeling its way into the unknown side of matter, just as complex psychology is pushing forward into the unknown side of the psyche. Both lines of investigation have yielded findings which can be conceived only by means of antinomies, and both have developed concepts which display remarkable analogies. If this trend should become more pronounced in the future, the hypothesis of the unity of their subject-matters would gain in probability. Of course there is little or no hope that the unitary Being can ever be conceived, since our powers of thought and language permit only of antinomian statements. But this much we do know beyond all doubt, that empirical reality has a transcendental background. – C. G. Jung
In attempting to understand the deepest levels of reality, it is wise to take note of Jung’s observation that our concepts are imperfect instruments, and that any conceptual representations we may form of these regions of reality will likely involve antinomies, and should be taken as being essentially symbolic rather than literal. For example, progress in the conceptual understanding of the nature of quanta was accomplished by acknowledging the principle of complementarity, which states that mutually exclusive sets of concepts must be used to completely characterize quantum phenomena in all their aspects. As Marie-Louise von Franz tells us, Jung recognized that this principle of complementarity applied to psychology as well as to physics:
Bohr’s idea of complementarity is especially interesting to Jungian psychologists, for Jung saw that the relationship between the conscious and unconscious mind also forms a complementary pair of opposites.
The analogy suggested here is that the wave-particle complementarity in quantum physics parallels the unconscious-conscious complementarity in psychology. Indeed, just as the wave is the unobserved aspect of the quantum and the particle is the observed aspect, so the unconscious is the unobserved aspect of the psyche and the conscious is the observed aspect. Moreover, the wave is continuously spread throughout space, while the particle has a limited location. Similarly, Jung states that
The area of the unconscious is enormous and always continuous, while the area of consciousness is a restricted field of momentary vision.
The analogy goes even further. The quantum wave function represents probabilities, as contrasted to the actualized particle. Similarly, the archetypal structures of the unconscious represent fundamental potentialities of psychic manifestation, while conscious contents are actualizations of these potentialities. As von Franz explains,
What Jung calls the archetypes…could just as well be called, to use Pauli’s term, "primary possibilities" of psychic reactions.
This suggests that the unus mundus behind both psyche and matter is also a continuous world of potentiality. Jung elaborates:
The common background for microphysics and depth-psychology is as much physical as psychic and therefore neither, but rather a third thing, a neutral nature which can at most be grasped in hints since in essence it is transcendental. The background of our empirical world thus appears to be in fact an unus mundus. … The transcendental psychophysical background corresponds to a `potential world’ in so far as those conditions which determine the form of empirical phenomena are inherent in it.
The following table summarizes the correspondence between complementary principles in psyche and matter:
Extending the analogy between psyche and matter further, physicist Victor Mansfield points out a similarity in the manner in which potentialities are transformed into actualities in the two realms:
In physics the irreversible measurement process transforms the potentialities into actualities. What is the corresponding psychic function that transforms `the potential world…’ into the world of multiplicity? It is reflective consciousness, the association of knowing with the ego, which makes the empirical world possible and brings the transcendental into the empirical world of multiplicity. The primordial unity of the unus mundus is shattered by reflective consciousness-a point agreed upon in most mystical traditions.
In quantum mechanics it’s only when an individual observes that an acausal spacetime event manifests. Our participation through measurement generates acausality. Analogously, when a unique center of consciousness, a specific individual, actualizes a possibility in the unus mundus, acausality enters our world. Introducing a particular perspective, a finite center of consciousness, inevitably brings acausality into the transition from possibilities to actualities.
Similarly, Jung has made a correspondence between the indeterminacy inherent in quantum measurement and the attempt to consciously determine unconscious contents:
Any attempt to determine the nature of the unconscious state runs up against the same difficulties as atomic physics: the very act of observation alters the object observed. Consequently, there is at present no way of objectively determining the real nature of the unconscious.
It should be pointed out here that Jung’s characterization of quantum measurement requires clarification. The quantum measurement does not alter the actual properties of the object being observed since these properties do not have determinate existence prior to measurement. More accurately, the measurement is the occasion for the determination of the actual properties of the object. There is thus a spontaneity that enters nature in quantum measurement. Similarly, the manifestation of unconscious contents within consciousness also has an element of spontaneity, insofar as the particular conscious image manifesting an archetype is not completely determined by previous conscious contents. This type of spontaneity is especially evident in synchronicity.
Although synchronicity phenomena and quantum phenomena have certain similarities, there are also important differences. Consider, for example, nonlocal correlations that have been experimentally observed between two separated quantum events. Like synchronicity, the observed properties of the observed quanta have an element of spontaneity in their manifestation, and the correlations between the two quanta are not due to efficient causation between the two particles. Quantum nonlocality phenomena differ from synchronicity, however, because two quantum events are both events in the outer physical world. Synchronicity, on the other hand, is necessarily a connection between an inner event and an outer event, bridging psyche and matter, and thus pointing to the unus mundus. This brings us to perhaps the most important distinction between the two phenomena, which relates to the inner psychological meaning that is essential to synchronicity. As explained by Mansfield,
In the quantum phenomenon…there is no meaning involved. …In contrast, when an archetype manifests in a synchronicity experience, meaning is the critical point.
Thus, synchronicity essentially involves the manifestation of meaning in the sense of an unconscious compensation that serves an individual’s process of individuation toward wholeness. Nonlocal correlations between quanta, in contrast, are connections between two physical events, and do not involve a manifestation of inner psychological meaning.
Another more subtle distinction between synchronicity and quantum nonlocality is that the quantum correlations are scientifically repeatable and predictable, while synchronicity phenomena appear to be almost entirely spontaneous and unpredictable. A closer psychological analog to quantum nonlocality is parapsychological phenomena. Mansfield elaborates:
Parapsychological phenomena are an example of general acausal orderedness, but not of synchronicity, which I strictly define as an acausal exemplification of meaning in the inner and outer world. Parapsychological phenomena are acausal since no energy or information exchange seems responsible for the correlations measured, but they lack the meaning associated with synchronicity. Furthermore, parapsychological phenomena, like similar quantum phenomena, are "constant and reproducible"…. This reproducibility is in further contrast to the unique and unpredictable nature of the more narrowly defined synchronicity.
Jung considered synchronicity to be a special case of "general acausal orderedness," which refers to forms of order that cannot be understood in terms of efficient causality or physical determinism. For example, the causal ordering of physical phenomena according to the deterministic laws of classical physics are not acausal orderedness. Nonlocal quantum correlations, however, are an instance of acausal orderedness manifest in the physical world. Synchronicity is also an example of a specific form of acausal orderedness which involves a meaningful connection between inner and outer events, exhibiting a manifestation of the depths of the unus mundus prior to divisions between psyche and matter.
From the above comparisons between physics and psychology, we can infer that the unus mundus is a domain of unified potentiality beyond the limitations of spatial separation and causal relationships in time. Although it is prior to many structures and limitations of manifest phenomena, this domain has orderedness and meaning–it is a domain of Logos. As a result, the deep structure of the unus mundus is perhaps most appropriately represented using the symbols of mathematics. As Jung explains,
Number helps more than anything else to bring order into the chaos of appearances. It is the predestined instrument for creating order, or for apprehending an already existing, but still unknown, regular arrangement or "orderedness." It may well be the most primitive element of order in the human mind.
And von Franz amplifies Jung, pointing out that mathematical order is common to both psychological and physical domains:
The deepest and most clearly distinguishable archetypal factor, which forms the basis of psycho-physical equivalence is, the archetypal patterns of natural numbers. . . . In respect to mathematical structure, the acausal orderedness in matter is of the same kind as that in the psyche and each is continually reflected in the other.
As an archetype, number becomes not only a psychic factor, but more generally, a world-structuring factor. In other words, numbers point to a background of reality in which psyche and matter are no longer distinguishable.
If indeed number, and mathematics in general, reflects the order of the unus mundus, this would explain the profound mystery of how it is that mathematics, which is a phenomenon of the mind, should prove so remarkably effective in representing the physical world. This mysterious harmony between psyche and matter is implicitly present at the foundation of all physics, and testifies to the Pythagorean roots of modern science. The Pythagoreans, however, viewed mathematics as much more than a mere language of quantity. For them numbers were symbols charged with archetypal meaning. The modern view of numbers, in other words, acknowledges only the quantitative aspect of numbers and ignores their aspect as quality and meaning. Moreover, von Franz points out that numbers are not merely static forms, but also represent vibrational energies (as the Pythagoreans recognized in the intimate connection between numbers and musical tones):
Since today we see processes everywhere rather than structures or static orders, I have also proposed seeing numbers in this perspective–as rhythmic configurations of psychic energy. 
From time immemorial number has been used most frequently to bridge the two realms because it represents the general structure of psychic and physical energy motions in nature and therefore appears, as it were, to provide the key to the mysterious language of unitary existence, particularly in its aspect of meaning (Tao). 
Like quanta, numbers have two complementary aspects, both of which are required if we are to more completely understand them. They have both quantitative and qualitative aspects, both static and dynamic aspects. It is through this double aspect of number, von Franz claims, that we can see their importance as a bridge between psyche and matter:
This complementary double aspect of number (quantity and quality) is in my opinion the thing which makes it possible for the world of quantity (matter) and of quality (psyche) to interlock with each other in a periodical manner.
Although von Franz associates matter with quantity, and psyche with quality, it should be noted that material vibrations, as with musical strings, are experienced as qualities or quantities depending on which aspect of the phenomenon we choose to isolate. Moreover, mathematical ideas experienced in the psyche have aspects of quantity as well as quality. Thus, it appears more appropriate to identify the qualitative aspect of number with its more subtle, vibrational component (whether physical or psychic) and the quantitative aspect of number with its more concrete, discrete component. The table of complementary aspects can then be amended to include the elements of number, as follows:
In any case, the key to the unity of psyche and matter, and to understanding the unus mundus, essentially involves the nature of number. There was at least no doubt as to this point for von Franz:
In the last analysis, the mystery of the unus mundus resides in the nature of number.
The understanding suggested by the above comparisons between structures in physics and psychology, therefore, is that physis and psyche are aspects of the same reality, with mathematics as a key archetypal core of both. However, we should note that the complementarity between psyche and matter (i.e., the two columns of the table above) appears distinct from the complementarity within psyche and matter (i.e., the two rows of the table above), so we should be careful not to confuse the two.
According to von Franz, the physicist David Bohm arrived at a similar understanding of the unified ground of psyche and matter:
David Bohm also presupposes the existence of an "ocean of energy" as the background of the universe, a background that is neither material nor psychic, but altogether transcendent. . . . Ultimately, it corresponds exactly to what Jung calls the unus mundus, which is situated beyond the objective psyche and matter and which also is situated outside space-time.
Bohm’s "ocean of energy" is a deep part of the implicate order of reality, which is distinguished from the explicate order. Typically, we are conscious of only these explicate features of reality, while the implicate features form an unconscious background. Bohm’s idea of the implicate order thus normally corresponds to the unconscious, while the explicate order corresponds to the conscious. He summarizes the idea of the implicate order as follows:
The essential feature of this idea was that the whole universe is in some way enfolded in everything and that each thing is enfolded in the whole. From this it follows that in some way, and to some degree everything enfolds or implicates everything, but in such a manner that under typical conditions of ordinary experience, there is a great deal of relative independence of things. The basic proposal is then that this enfoldment relationship is not merely passive or superficial. Rather, it is active and essential to what each thing is. It follows that each thing is internally related to the whole, and therefore, to everything else. The external relationships are then displayed in the unfolded or explicate order in which each thing is seen, as has already indeed been indicated, as relatively separate and extended, and related only externally to other things. The explicate order, which dominates ordinary experience as well as classical (Newtonian) physics, thus appears to stand by itself. But actually, it cannot be understood properly apart from its ground in the primary reality of the implicate order.
Reality is a flowing of this whole (or, in Bohm’s terms, a holomovement) with varying degrees of implication and explication. For Bohm, reality includes both psyche and matter, and the idea of the implicate order applies to mind as well as to matter, thus providing a link between the two:
We are suggesting that the implicate order applies both to matter…and to consciousness, and that it can therefore make possible an understanding of the general relationship of these two, from which we may be able to come to some notion of a common ground of both.
And von Franz agrees:
These terms of Bohm’s can be applied quite well to the ideas put forward by Jung in his area of research. For example, in that case the archetypes can be understood as dynamic, unobservable structures, specimens of the implicate order. If, on the other hand, an archetype manifests as an archetypal dream image, it has unfolded and become more "explicated." If we go on to interpret this image using Jung’s hermeneutic technique. . . that image would "explicate" and unfold still further.
It is significant to note that, as von Franz implies, unconscious content can be explicated to various degrees, making it more conscious. This suggests that there is not a clear distinction between the conscious and the unconscious, but rather a continuum. Indeed, Jung explicitly says just this:
Conscious and unconscious have no clear demarcations, the one beginning where the other leaves off. …The psyche is a conscious-unconscious whole.
In other words, the psyche is a unity or whole containing an explicate region of consciousness that is neither fixed nor ultimately distinguishable from the whole. According to Bohm, however, consciousness is not necessarily coincident with the explicate order, since we can become directly aware of these subtle flowing aspects of the implicate order taking place in the background of the more concrete and explicit aspects of our experience. Nevertheless, our consciousness is often habitually fixated on the more explicit content. As Bohm explains:
One reason why we do not generally notice the primacy of the implicate order is that we have become so habituated to the explicate order, and have emphasized it so much in our thought and language, that we tend strongly to feel that our primary experience is of that which is explicit and manifest. However, another reason, perhaps more important, is that the activation of memory recordings whose content is mainly that which is recurrent, stable, and separable, must evidently focus our attention very strongly on what is static and fragmented. This then contributes to the formation of an experience in which these static and fragmented features are often so intense that the more transitory and subtle features of the unbroken flow…generally tend to pale into such seeming insignificance that one is, at best, only dimly conscious of them.
Bohm seems to point out possibilities of consciousness that were not acknowledged by Jung. In particular, for Jung the unconscious is a transcendental region of reality that we can never know directly. Thus, we only know the unconscious indirectly and imperfectly from the images and other concrete manifestations that surface in consciousness. According to Bohm, however, although consciousness is habitually fixated on the explicit surface manifestations rising up from deeper implicate levels of the psyche, it is nevertheless possible to become directly conscious of these implicate orders of reality–orders of reality that Jung assumed to be forever unconscious. Thus, while Jung remains correct with regard to consciousness that is fixated exclusively on explicit orders, his statements must be qualified to allow for a consciousness that develops the capacity to be aware of subtler levels of manifestation. Such a consciousness will have the capacity for direct awareness of contents that previously would be considered transcendent, unconscious, and only indirectly knowable by inference from more explicit and concrete manifestations. The implication is that we cannot maintain a rigid or ultimate distinction between the transcendent and empirical, between the archetypes and their manifestations, or between the implicit order and the explicit order. Rather, the explicit is imbedded in and essentially integrated with the implicit, with a continuum of degrees of enfolding and unfolding uniting the two. Similarly, the manifested images of the archetypes cannot ultimately be separated from the archetypes, but must be seen as their manifested aspects that are inseparable from the archetypes in their potential-actualized wholeness.
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 10:20 PM
Surprisingly, our exploration into the unity of psyche and matter has revealed an essential unity between the implicate and explicate aspects of each. That is, the unity is as much vertical within each realm as horizontal between them. In retrospect, we can see why this must be so, since the separate empirical realms of psyche and matter cannot truly be united if this unity only resides in a transcendent realm that is absolutely divided from the empirical realms. We must have unity both vertically and horizontally. This combined vertical-horizontal integration can be illustrated by the following analogy from physics. Prior to Einstein, energy and matter were thought to be separate and autonomous empirical phenomena. This separation of energy and matter is reflected in the two classical conservation laws: the conservation of energy and the conservation of mass. After Einstein, however, the distinction between matter and energy was no longer absolute, and it was recognized that mass and energy are separate aspects or manifestations of an underlying unity of mass-energy (mathematically represented as a 4-dimensional energy-momentum vector). The old conservation laws were thus subsumed within a new law: conservation of mass-energy.
In this analogy, the duality of mass and energy is horizontal, because these are two phenomena manifesting on the same empiric plane. They manifest as relatively autonomous phenomena as long as relative motions are negligible in comparison with the speed of light. In Einstein’s theory, matter and energy are understood as the empirical manifestations of a unified reality (i.e., the energy-momentum 4-vector). Energy corresponds to one component of the 4-dimensional vector, while mass corresponds to the other three components. Interestingly, however, the vector acts as a whole, with the result that its mass and energy components can be mixed in various ways when the vector manifests (is "projected") into a particular empirical reference frame. This mixing betrays the unity of energy and mass within this transcendent realm. One can visualize the essence of this mixing by imagining two spotlights shining on an upright pole from different angles, projecting two shadows on the floor. One shadow is the analog of energy, the other is the analog of mass. If we tilt the pole away from its upright orientation, the lengths of the two shadows (i.e., the observed mass and energy) will change, while the length of the pole itself stays constant.
The above analogy illustrates how we might understand how psyche and matter can manifest as relatively autonomous realms that are nevertheless mysteriously coordinated by virtue of their common origins deep within the unus mundus. Like the conservation laws of matter and energy, psyche and matter manifest in such a way that the transformations of one are in many ways independent of the other. Our thoughts, for example, normally appear to operate with relative independence from the transformations taking place in most of the physical world. Conversely, the transformations of matter in the universe are not normally altered by our thoughts. Yet, certain anomalous phenomena such as synchronicity sometimes burst forth unexpectedly, hinting at some mysterious unity of psyche and matter. And at deeper, subtler, and more implicate levels of manifestation, the connections become increasingly evident, such as the archetypal patterns of number that are essential to the orderedness in both realms.
Thus, if consciousness becomes sufficiently subtle to see the implicate aspects of both psychic and physical phenomena, their unity in a common source can be directly experienced and not merely inferred indirectly from diverse concrete particulars. This implies the necessity for an expanded epistemology for physics, psychology, and knowledge in general that takes us well beyond the forms of knowing that are limited to only the most explicit orders of reality. For truly integrative knowledge, we must expand and deepen our capacities of consciousness. Otherwise, an integral theory will be nothing more than a pleasing speculative construct based on explicit contents that have emerged from the deeper levels. In short, if we are really to know the unitive depths of Bohm’s ocean of energy, we must allow ourselves to sink down into them, and not merely watch the surface phenomena that merely hint at what is below. The unconscious calls us into its depths.
We can define the unconscious in the most general sense as the domain of all things that are indirectly known, posited, or presumed to exist outside of the present conscious awareness but that have an influence on the contents of conscious awareness. The unconscious is the realm of the unmanifest (relative to our present consciousness). Typically, our consciousness is fixated on the explicate order, while the implicate order remains largely unconscious. In some cases, however, consciousness may move into the depths of the implicate order. In addition to both personal and impersonal psychic contents, these depths also include both personal and impersonal physical contents. For example, although the dishes inside the dishwasher are presumed actually to be there, they are in fact outside of present conscious awareness, and are in the domain of the unconscious (relative to our present consciousness). Because they are in principle accessible to anyone, they are part of a collective unconscious. What we conventionally call objective physical reality, therefore, can be viewed as a region of the collective unconscious that is partially presented to each of us in a unique way during our waking consciousness. The structures of this region of the unconscious are known as the physical laws, since they determine the lawful manner in which this region behaves and evolves. The so-called objective world is in fact part of the unconscious and is only glimpsed indirectly through its projections into conscious awareness. For example, if I open the dishwasher, what appears in consciousness is a visual image of a plate viewed from a particular perspective. The plate in itself is not seen. It is not in consciousness. Only a projection of the plate’s visual image is seen. The plate itself (its implicate aspect) remains a transcendental idea posited to exist outside of consciousness. The plate is therefore still largely implicate in the unconscious, even when I am looking at an explicate aspect of it. Only an image of the plate actually arises in consciousness. Moreover, if my friend is looking as well, she will see a different image due to her different perspective. Neither one of us sees the plate in all its implicate totality, however. This is analogous to the fact that the universal implicate aspects of archetypes are not manifest in the explicate order, but their diverse explicate aspects manifest to us in dreams as particular symbolic expressions that vary from person to person.
The explicit archetypal contents that are generally accessible to us provide the basis for a collective understanding of a shared world. In the case of access via the physical senses, this collective understanding takes the form of the physical world. In the case of the mind, this collective understanding takes the form of psychological archetypes, transpersonal states of consciousness, mathematics, and so on. Insofar as the archetypes are not entirely unambiguous in their explicate manifestations, or manifest in ways that are influenced by cultural or personal factors, they allow us to create a multitude of interpretive frameworks for understanding and representing these objective worlds. Thus, for example, our inner experience of mystical states of consciousness may find expression in various different philosophical or religious systems, while our outer experience of physical phenomena may be understood in terms of distinct scientific paradigms. The development of physics involves the successive refinement of our shared understanding and explorations of deeper and deeper regions of these collectively accessible regions of outer experience. As our understanding penetrates to deeper levels of increasing subtlety, the representation becomes more universal and comprehensive, so that the structure of the nested representations within physics range from very general universal laws down through particular instances valid only for restricted domains of experience, to a specific quantitative numerical prediction for a given experimental arrangement. Our understanding is therefore provided with a depth that reaches from the multiple contents of explicate conscious awareness from many possible perspectives, down to the universal implicate depths that are common to all perspectives. A similar structure is present in mystical traditions, where the understanding links the particular experiential phenomena of an individual, up through intermediate levels common to certain types of individuals engaged in particular practices, to universal principles common to all individuals. Depth psychology is again similar, with experiential dream images and such related first to personal unconscious contents, and then to deep archetypal structures of a collective nature.
Note that each phenomenon contains within it aspects of all levels. The implicit aspects of a phenomenon may be known directly by a correspondingly subtle awareness. Alternatively, they may be unfolded by comparing and contrasting similar phenomena from many different perspectives, providing us with a more explicit understanding of the aspects that are particular to each phenomenon, and the aspects that are universal to all the similar phenomena.
It appears that at a very deep level there is no distinction between physical and psychic structures, and that these are, as it were, two perspectives we have on the same core reality. Thus, through comparison and contrast of physical and psychic phenomena, we can isolate the essence of this common core. It does seem clear, however, that one key feature of this core is its mathematical nature. (Note that this view contrasts with the notion that "physical" is a concrete level of reality, while "psychic" is a subtle level. Rather, they both have depths of subtlety that penetrate to the core of reality, and they both have a concrete surface that is immediately present in ordinary empiric consciousness. Thus mind cannot be reduced to matter, nor matter to mind. Both emerge as different aspects of a more fundamental ground.)
It should be kept in mind that, as Bohm points out, our access to these deep implicate levels is not necessarily limited to indirect access through correlation of diverse explicit contents with theoretical representations in order to infer their common core. It is also possible to directly access these implicate levels of reality that are normally considered unconscious. In other words, the unconscious can become conscious in two ways: indirectly through inference from explicit contents, or directly through an expansion of the range of consciousness into the more implicate levels of reality.
With the advance of physics and psychology, our theoretical understanding of the mystery beyond the range of our present consciousness is expanding to the point where we see hints of the identity of psyche and matter at deep levels. The evolution of consciousness that is explicating and integrating more of the unconscious appears to be bringing into an explicate unity an original implicate unity. This integrative theoretical understanding, however, is merely an attempt to conceptually hold together diverse fragmented contents that have emerged on the explicate level. Such a conceptual unity is at best a partial and imperfect representation of otherwise unconscious content, and we must be careful not to mistake this representation for the unconscious content itself, confusing our world of abstractions with concrete experience. Fundamentally, this mistake is the ignorance of the process of positing the existence of things beyond or outside our consciousness, and thus confusing our conscious representations of those things as being "things themselves" (such as when we imagine a material particle to have an objectively existing position). Because the conscious representation inevitably fails to correspond exactly with the unconscious reality, the confusion results in a distortion of our understanding of reality. Inevitably, reality (i.e., the unconscious portion of reality) manifests itself to consciousness in a way that contradicts this distortion. This unconscious compensation is then experienced as a crisis, and the anomaly is either integrated or denied. If it is integrated, a more comprehensive and accurate conscious representation of reality typically develops. If it is not integrated, the unconscious compensations will continue until they create sufficient cognitive crisis to result in a sacrifice of the distortion. In either case, because our representations can never perfectly mirror reality, the developmental process will continue. This whole process of development is based on the fundamental mistake of failing to recognize that our conscious representation of what is outside of our consciousness (i.e., the objective world) is an imperfect imaginative construct, and not an actual mirror of some real, objective reality.
If there is a recognition of the very process of positing the existence of things outside of consciousness through the confusion of the representation with the real, then any inaccuracy of our conscious representation is no longer a problem because it is never confused with reality in the first place. The spontaneous revelations of reality that do not fit into prior representational schemes are then experienced with delight, and are not met with resistance. In other words, it is recognized at the deepest level of our psyche that reality always has and always will infinitely transcend our representations of it. As a result, we are most in touch with reality when our experiences go beyond our representations of reality.
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Researched source: http://www.integralscience.org/psyche-physis.html
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 10:19 PM
(…) não há necessidade alguma de separar o monarca da plebe: toda autoridade é igualmente má. Há três espécies de déspota. Há o que tiraniza o corpo. Há o que tiraniza a alma. Há o que tiraniza o corpo e a alma. O primeiro chama-se Príncipe. O segundo chama-se Papa. O terceiro chama-se Povo.
POSTED BY SELETINOF AT 1:40 PM
Após não conseguir acordar de um sonho, um jovem passa a encontrar pessoas da vida real em seu mundo imaginário, com quem têm longas conversas sobre os vários estados da consciência humana e discussões filosóficas e religiosas.
Quem gosta dos assuntos desse blog DEVE assistir ao filme Waking Life (não tem título em português). Ele foi baseado em idéias de Platão, Aristóteles, Nietzche, Jean Paul Sartre, e é todo construído em diálogos (como Sócrates gostava de filosofar) e perguntas jogadas ao vento.
Ele tem um forte apelo estético – foi filmado com atores reais e cada cena foi redesenhada com o auxílio do computador, dando um aspecto vetorizado a umas cenas e mão-livre em outras – mas não se deixem enganar pelo aspecto “muderno”: o maior avanço deste filme é realmente o espiritual. Ele não tem um roteiro linear. Trata-se de encontros do personagem principal com outras pessoas, cada uma delas com uma contribuição filosófica e espiritual a dar. Recomendo pausar o filme no fim de cada encontro pra poder “digerir” a quantidade de informações.
O que me surpreendeu foi descobrir que um filme norte-americano pode ser tão profundo e sutil. As idéias não são jogadas “na cara”, e sim sutilmente veladas. Quem conhece projeciologia vai se divertir vendo o personagem dizer que está preso num sonho, vai reconhecer um walk-in (seres de outros planetas que eventualmente encarnam aqui) e perceber quem ainda está encarnado (mas projetado) e os usos que eles fazem desta “outra vida”, enquanto dormem. FANTÁSTICO. Não percam a mensagem do final (do cara que joga fliperama, e que por acaso é o diretor do filme) sobre o sentido da vida.
Das notas acima sobre o filme Waking Life, interessa-nos apenas os aspectos filosóficos… mas o filme é, em si, muito rico, propenso mesmo a muitos questionamentos. É imperdível!
POSTEDE BY SELETINOF 1:22 PM